Feminist opponents of pornography—such as Andrea Dworkin , Catharine MacKinnon , Robin Morgan , Diana Russell , Alice Schwarzer , Gail Dines , and Robert Jensen —argue that pornography is harmful to women, and constitutes strong causality or facilitation of violence against women. Catharine McKinnon and Andrea Dworkin had separately staked out a position that pornography was inherently exploitative toward women, and they called for a civil law to make pornographers accountable for harms that could be shown to result from the use, production, and circulation of their publications. This is said to be true even when the women are being presented as enjoying themselves. Gail Dines holds that pornography, exemplified by gonzo pornography , is becoming increasingly violent and that women who perform in pornography are brutalized in the process of its production. The feminist anti-pornography movement was galvanized by the publication of Ordeal , in which Linda Boreman who under the name of "Linda Lovelace" had starred in Deep Throat stated that she had been beaten, raped, and pimped by her husband Chuck Traynor , and that Traynor had forced her at gunpoint to make scenes in Deep Throat, as well as forcing her, by use of both physical violence against Boreman as well as emotional abuse and outright threats of violence, to make other pornographic films.